The main idea of these business-school academic is appealing. In a world where companies must adapt to new technologies and source of competition, it is much harder than it used to be to offer good employees job security and an opportunity to climb the corporate ladder. Yet it is also more necessary than ever for employees to invest in better skills and sparkle with bright ideas. How can firms get the most out of people if they can no longer offer them protection and promotion?
Many bosses would love to have an answer. Sumantrra Ghoshal of the London Business School and Christopher Bartlett of the Harvard Business School think they have one: employability. If managers offer the right kinds of training and guidance, and change their attitude towards their underlings, they will be able to reassure their employees that they will always have the skills and experience to find a good job—even if it is with a different company.
Unfortunately, they promise mere than they deliver. Their thoughts on what an ideal organization should accomplish are hard to quarrel with: encourage people to be creative, make sure the gains from creativity are shared with the pans of the business that can make the most of them, keep the organization from getting stale and so forth. the real disappointment comes when they attempt to show firms might actually create such an environment. At its nub is the notion that companies can attain their elusive goods by changing their implicit contract with individual workers, and treating them as a source of value rather than as a cog in a machine.
The authors offer a few inspiring example of companies—they include Motorola, 3M and ABB—that have managed to go some way towards creating such organizations. But they offer little useful guidance on how to go about it, and leave the biggest questions unanswered. How do you continuously train people? How do you train people to be successful elsewhere while still encouraging them to make big commitments to your own firm? How do you get your newly liberated employees to spend their time on ideas that create value, and not simply on those they enjoy? Most of their answers are platitudinous; and when they are not they are convicing.
21. We can infer from the passage that in the past an employee _______.
A) had job security and opportunity of promotion
B) had to compete with each other to keep his job
C) had to undergo training all the time
D) had no difficulty climbing the climbing ladder
22. What does the writer of this passage think of the ideas of Ghashal and Bartlett?
A) Very intrusive.
B) Very inspiring
C) Hard to implement.
D) Quite hash.
23. Ghoshal and Bartlett discuss _______.
A) changes in business organizations
B) contracts between employers and employee
C) employment situation
D) management ideas
24. Which of the following Ghoshal and Bartlett might not agree with?
A) employability can help staff members find a good job in other companies
B) training can lead to more frequent job switches
C) creativity is part of employability
D) training can conflict with profit in a company
25. This passage seems to be a(n) __________.
A) book review
C) news report
D) research paper